In academic research, it's important to be able to distinguish between different types of sources. These differences often are contextual, meaning that a single source might fit in different categories depending on how you are using it and in what academic discipline you are writing.
Primary sources are the raw materials of scholarship.
Secondary sources report on or interpret primary sources.
Tertiary sources synthesize and present overviews of primary and secondary sources.
Scholarly sources present sophisticated, researched arguments using both primary and secondary sources and are written by experts.
Popular sources aim to inform or entertain and are intended for a general, non-specialized audience. In academic writing, popular sources most often are analyzed as primary sources.
Using the BEAM framework, how could this source be used to make a researched argument? Why do you think so?
Surface-Evans, Sarah. "A Landscape of Assimilation and Resistance: The Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School." International Journal of Historical Archaeology, vol. 20, no. 3, Sept. 2016, pp. 574-588.
Reyhner, Jon. "American Indian Boarding Schools." Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, edited by Patrick L. Mason, 2nd ed., vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2013, pp. 96-100.
Zitkala-Sa. "The School Days of An Indian Girl." The Atlantic Monthly, vo. 85, 1900, pp. 185-194.
Spack, Ruth. “Re-Visioning Sioux Women: Zitkala-S̈a's Revolutionary American Indian Stories.” Legacy, vol. 14, no. 1, 1997, pp. 25–42.
Use this guide to get started with your research for
SSI2 105: Imagining the American West
Carleton E. Watkins "View on the Columbia, Cascades." (1867). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Warner Communications Inc. Purchase Fund and Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1979
Research is a creative, nonlinear process. Experienced scholars will tell you that they rarely end up exactly where they thought they would when they first started out! You'll need to give yourself the time to pursue ideas, reconsider ideas in light of new information, and then craft an original, researched argument.
To be successful in college-level research, you will need to make use of the resources and services of the library. Here are a few reasons why:
Research is connected to your writing. Relevant sources will address your questions and fit your purpose. BEAM is an acronym intended to help students think about the various ways we might use sources when writing a researched argument. Joseph Bizup, an English professor at Boston University, outlined the framework in a 2008 article. The idea has since been refined and adapted by many others.
Did you know we have TWO dedicated Peer Research Advisors at Collins? The peer research advisors can help you locate, evaluate, and cite sources for your research.