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Physics 351: Electromagnetic Theory: Citations

Citation Tools

Consult our Citation Tools Guide to learn more about different citation styles, and find out about the citation management software that you can use: RefWorks and Zotero.

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Best for: Questions that can't wait but come up when the library is closed; citation questions; tracking down specific books and articles. 

Citation Guidelines

Citation guidelines for research papers –

1.  All outside sources must be referenced, including any Web pages or books from which you gathered pictures or diagrams.  A rule of thumb is to include references for any information that appears in your paper that will not be “common knowledge” for your audience.

2.  For your paper, you should cite references using end notes.  Within the text, you’ll have a number (such as [1]), and at the bottom of the last page, you should list the reference that goes with that number.  Here are a few examples using the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) citation style.

A book

            [1] David J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd edition, Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.

A chapter from an edited book or encyclopedia

            [2] E.D. Lipson and B.T. Horowitz, “Photosensory reception and transduction,” in Sensory Receptors and Signal Transduction, J.L. Spudich and B.H. Satir, Eds. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1991, pp. 1-64.

An article from a scholarly journal paginated by volume

            [3] K.A. Nelson, R.J. Dwayne, Miller, D.R. Lutz, and M.D. Fayer, “Optical generation of tunable ultrasonic waves,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 2, Feb., pp. 1144-1149, 1982.

An article from a magazine paginated by issue

            [4] J. Fallows, “Networking technology,” Atlantic Monthly, July, pp. 34-36, 1994.

An article from a daily newspaper

            [5] B. Metcalfe, “The numbers show how slowly the Internet runs today,” Infoworld, 30 Sept., p. 34, 1996.

A professional Internet site

            [6] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting  (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online].  Available: [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998].

A personal Internet site

             [7] G. Sussman, "Home page - Dr. Gerald Sussman," July 2002. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 12,   2004].

A general Internet site

             [8] J. Geralds, "Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,", para. 2, Jan. 31, 2001.     [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 12, 2004].

Internet document, no author given

            [9] “A ‘layman’s’ explanation of Ultra Narrow Band technology,” Oct. 3, 2003. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Dec. 3, 2003].

Get Help at CWLT

The Center for Writing, Learning and Teaching (CWLT), located in Howarth 109, offers students opportunities to get help on all aspects of the writing process.  Services include:

  • Writing Advisors who are selected through a rigorous application process and who are specially trained to help students get started on a paper, organize their thoughts, or improve their editing skills.
  • Peer Tutors in a wide range of subjects who are nominated by professors in their disciplines and who are specially trained to help students individually or in small groups.
  • Language Partners who work with multilingual students to help them navigate the conventions and quirks of academic English writing.
  • Academic Consultants who are specially trained to help students improve their time management skills, organization, study skills, and test-taking strategies.

Sound Writing


Sound Writing is the official writing handbook on campus, written by student writing advisors and specifically tailored to the needs of Puget Sound students and their faculty.

In addition to supporting the development of successful academic writing skills, Sound Writing also includes sections on research methods, writing in the disciplines, and more.

Sound Writing provides help with three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (notes & bibliography).

Current Edition: 2020