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BIOLOGY: SUBJECT GUIDE: Primary Sources

Use this guide to get started with your biology research!

Puget Sound Archives & Special Collections, Biology

The Archives & Special Collections collects, preserves, and makes available primary source material documenting life at the University as well as collections representing regional, national and international issues.

A small selection of material is listed below, for additional sources, please contact archives@pugetsound.edu.

The James R. Slater papers, 1919-1983, contains correspondence, photographs, field guides, plant collecting index notes, maps, and materials pertaining to the Stanley G. Jewett mammal collection recorded by Slater, a former biology professor and founder of the Museum of Natural History on campus.

Livingston, Robert R., Essay on sheep; their varieties--account of the merinos of Spain, France, &c., 1810.

Primary Sources in the Sciences

Primary sources in the natural sciences are publications which provide a full description of original research and the presents the results of that research. The most common example of a primary source in the sciences is a scholarly article published in a peer-reviewed journal. Primary sources in the sciences include a description of the research and the results and references to other research in the field, and are factual, not interpretive. They can also take the form of more personal records and correspondence, including lab notebooks, diaries, and letters.

 

Primary Source

Secondary Source

Definition

Original materials that have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation by a second party.

Sources that contain commentary on or a discussion about a primary source.

Formats (depending on the research being conducted)

See below for thorough list, but anything which presents the findings and presents full descriptions of original research.

See below, but anything which does NOT present original results, but instead discusses, critiques or comments on original research. Necessarily comes later in the publication cycle.

Example: Scientists Studying Industrial Fertilizer

Article in scholarly journal publishing results of testing for fertilizer levels.

Newspaper editorial calling for regulations on use of industrial fertilizer.

Example of Types of Sources

  • Conference Papers
  • Correspondence
  • Dissertations
  • Diaries
  • Interviews
  • Lab Notebooks
  • Notes
  • Patents
  • Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Article
  • Conference or Society Proceedings
  • Studies or Surveys
  • Technical Reports
  • Theses

 

  • Criticism and Interpretation
  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopedias
  • Government Policy
  • Guide to Literature
  • Handbooks
  • Law and Legislation
  • Publications discussing Moral, Ethical or Political Aspects
  • Publications Analysizing Public Response or Opinion
  • Review Articles

 

(adapted from http://library.albany.edu/usered/dr/prisci.html)

What's a primary source?

Primary sources are original, uninterpreted information.  Scholars analyze primary sources in order to answer research questions. Examples of primary sources vary by discipline.

Examples in the humanities:

  • a novel
  • a painting
  • a theatre performance

Examples in the social sciences:

  • a political, social, or economic theory
  • a dataset
  • the results of an experiment published in a peer-reviewed journal

Example in the sciences:

  • the results of an experiment published in a peer-reviewed journal

Need Help?

 Stuck? Need Help? Don't hesitate to contact Eli!

Eli Gandour-Rood, Science Librarian
egandourrood@pugetsound.edu

tel: (253) 879-3678

Click Here to Schedule a Virtual Appointment!