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SSI1-120: Hagia Sophia: From the Emperor's Church to the Sultan's Mosque: Citations

This guide provides a starting point for doing research. It provides a list of links and information related to the course.


A citation is a reference to a source used by an author. Conventions for documenting citations vary by discipline. Typically a citation includes enough information to lead the reader directly to source or identify the source used.

Mining citations can be an effective research strategy for finding more sources relevant to a topic.

  • Use an author's name to find other publications on the same topic. 
  • Review citations of a bibliography to identify earlier related works,

Citations Explained

Before you can find the full text, you need to understand the parts of a citation.

Example of a Journal Citation:

Teteriatnikov, Natalia B. "The Mosaics of the Eastern Arch of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople: Program and Liturgy." Gesta 52 (2013): 61-84.

Example of a Book Citation:

Nelson, Robert S. Hagia Sophia, 1850-1950: holy wisdom modern monument. University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Example of an Essay in a Edited Book:

Eastmond, Antony. “Between Icon and Idol: The Uncertainty of Imperial Images.” In Icon and Word: The Power of Images in Byzantium Studies Presented to Robin Cormack, edited by Antony Eastmond and Liz James, 73-86. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.

Search Primo for the Full text

Once you've identified a citation, your next step is to locate the full text. Whether it's a book, magazine, journal, or newspaper article, check Primo. Use the location chart to identify the floor of a physical item.


For books or essays in books, use Primo's advanced search. Change the "any field" to title and type words from the title of the book.

Book example:

Eastmond, Antony. Art and Identity in Thirteenth-Century Byzantium : Hagia Sophia and the Empire of Trebizond. Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, VT, Ashgate/Variorum, 2004.


To find articles, use Primo's advanced search. Change the "any field" to title. Type the journal title and the material type to journals.

Journal example:

James, Liz. "Senses and sensibility in Byzantium." Art History 27.4 (2004): 522-537.