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Court of Justice of the European Union
Since the establishment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in 1952, its mission has been to ensure that "the law is observed" "in the interpretation and application" of the Treaties.
As part of that mission, the Court of Justice of the European Union:
Reviews the legality of the acts of the institutions of the European Union.
Ensures that the Member States comply with obligations under the Treaties.
Interprets European Union law at the request of the national courts and tribunals.
The Court thus constitutes the judicial authority of the European Union and, in cooperation with the courts and tribunals of the Member States, it ensures the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
This site contains links to the three ICRC databases on international humanitarian law: "Treaties, State Parties and Commentaries," "Customary IHL database" and "ICRC national implementation database."
International Court of Justice
The Court is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It was established by the United Nations Charter, signed in 1945 at San Francisco (United States), and began work in 1946 in the Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands).
The Court, which is composed of 15 judges, has a dual role: in accordance with international law, settling legal disputes between States submitted to it by them and giving advisory opinions on legal matters referred to it by duly authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court (ICC) investigates and, where warranted, tries individuals charged with the gravest crimes of concern to the international community: genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The Court is participating in a global fight to end impunity, and through international criminal justice, the Court aims to hold those responsible accountable for their crimes and to help prevent these crimes from happening again. The Court cannot reach these goals alone. As a court of last resort, it seeks to complement, not replace, national Courts. Governed by an international treaty called the Rome Statute, the ICC is the world’s first permanent international criminal court.
World Trade Organization: Dispute Settlement
This page is a gateway to material on:
Disputes in general, and how they are handled in the WTO and its Dispute Settlement Body.
Negotiations on the Dispute Settlement Understanding.
Individual dispute cases.
The WTO’s procedure for resolving trade quarrels under the Dispute Settlement Understanding is vital for enforcing the rules and therefore for ensuring that trade flows smoothly.